Facial skincare rules, procedures, preparations, and problems

Facial skincare

One of the main causes of skin diseases is the disturbed skincare routine or laziness in caring for your skin. If you are not following your skincare routine then surely it’s gonna cost you. Lack of timely cleansing from harmful substances can negatively affect the condition of the skin. Here we have shared a few scientifically proved methods for proper skincare. 

Facial skincare rules, procedures, preparations, and problems

How to develop a personalized facial skincare program

We all dream of having the most effective facial skin care. So, he took into account all her individual characteristics. In total, four types of skin are distinguished in cosmetology – normal, oily, dry, and combination.

 To determine what type your skin belongs to, we list their main features:

Oily skin

The main symptom is increased sebum secretion and oily sheen. The skin looks bad, the pores are enlarged. Oily skin is prone to comedones and blackheads. But small mimic wrinkles appear on it relatively late.

Dry skin

Dry skin is the opposite of oily skin. Sebum production is reduced, the skin does not shine, but has a matte shade, may peel off. Dry skin is thinner and more delicate, but wrinkles appear on it faster, sometimes as early as 30 years. Pores on this type of skin are almost invisible.

Normal skin

Normal skin is a sweet spot that is relatively rare. Sebum production in the case of normal skin is moderate, the skin can shine, but only in the T-zone, the pores are usually small and enlarged also only in the central part of the face. Usually, this type of skin is resistant to external and internal factors, its condition is “even” throughout the year.

Combination skin

Combination skin combines the features of the three types listed above. Owners of combination skin may have enlarged pores in the T-zone, increased sebum secretion in some areas of the face, comedones, and acne periodically occur. Usually, combination skin is not prone to early aging.

All these features must be considered when choosing products for facial skin care. After all, if you use those creams and lotions that “do not suit” your skin type, you can get the opposite effect: the care not only will not give results but can also worsen the appearance.

For example, if people with dry skin use peels with coarse exfoliating particles, they can easily injure it. And the owners of oily skin using sebum-regulating agents need to maintain a balance, otherwise, the surface layers of the skin can be dried out, while the global problem remains unresolved

Principle of proper skincare

So, the main principle of proper skin care at home is to select it in accordance with the type. If you have a normal skin type, then you can create your own skin care program based on common recommendations. We advise owners of dry, oily, and even more combination skin to contact a specialist – beautician or dermatologist. This is how you can choose those caring products that will solve problems, and not aggravate them.

Fundamentally important!

You should not choose your own skincare products if your skin is not of the normal type. But how can this be explained? It’s about the root cause. Dry skin may be the result of a decrease in the activity of the sebaceous glands and may be the result of a violation of the integrity of the epidermal barrier. So, the owners of dry skin often solve the problem of moisturizing it at home, resorting to the use of fatty nourishing cream.

 If dry skin is associated not with the work of the sebaceous glands, but with the state of the epidermis, such a choice can aggravate the situation: the oily cream forms a film on the skin surface that interferes with the skin respiration and normal metabolism.

whether you choose the products yourself or resort to the help of a specialist, the facial skincare program will include three stages: cleansing, toning, and nutrition. However, the list of care products and recommended procedures will vary from case to case.

Normal skincare

It may seem the simplest, but it has its own characteristics. In particular, for washing, you should use products that do not contain antibacterial and anti-inflammatory components. Scrubs should not be used more than once a week.

It is better not to choose alcohol-based products that dry the skin at all, and instead use cosmetics with herbal ingredients: extracts of chamomile, aloe, calendula, tea tree. They even out the texture of the skin and improve its appearance.

Day creams

Day creams for normal skin should contain sunscreen to prevent drying out. To moisturize the skin at home, it is better to use non-occlusive products, that is, those that do not form a film on the surface [5]. Usually, these are not creams, but gels, which include proteins, polysaccharides, glucosaminoglycans.

Oily skincare 

Oily skin requires special care, which does not provoke increased activity of the sebaceous glands and does not dry out the surface layer of the epidermis. It should also be remembered that the concentration of linoleic acid is lower in oily skin. This leads to the fact that the epidermal barrier worse protects the skin from various pathogens of irritation and inflammation. This is why oily skin often suffers from redness.

The main directions of care for oily skin

high-quality cleansing

bactericidal skin treatment

the decrease in the activity of the sebaceous glands


elimination of areas of increased density


For washing, it is recommended to choose products with a neutral or acidic pH. A shift in acidity in the opposite direction increases the risk of bacterial growth. Better to take the so-called soap without soap, that is, not containing alkali.

These are products containing ammonium lactate. Zinc lactate will help regulate sebum secretion, “dry” the skin softly and delicately. After washing your face 2-3 times a week, you can additionally cleanse your skin with a scrub. It will help remove skin particles that don’t flake off on their own. You can use exfoliating creams or gels with synthetic particles in the composition.

Skin toning

For skin toning, it is best to use products that do not contain alcohol. These can be tonics and lotions based on herbal extracts, in particular, containing chamomile, calendula, aloe.

Sometimes, people with oily skin believe that it does not need hydration. Of course, this is not the case, but moisturizers should not be heavy, dense in texture, and make it difficult for breathing and the drainage of sebum. 

To moisturize your skin, it is better to use a gel, serum, or milk instead of a cream. If the skin is prone to inflammation, then nutrients should include anti-inflammatory components such as bisabolol. But we must remember that gels are not recommended for use in the cold: in winter they are suitable only for night care.

Dry skincare

Dry skin can be congenital, genetic, but sometimes occurs during life. In particular, the level of sebum production is associated with hormonal levels – as menopause approaches, dryness of the skin increases. It can also be the result of improper care, for example, frequent peels.

For dry skincare, it is recommended to use products containing ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. These substances help to normalize the outer skin barrier. If your skin is cracked, use products that create a thin film that holds water. 

This property is possessed by paraffin and glycerin, which can serve as a means of express help: when using them, the water balance of the skin is quickly restored. Of the caring masks, those with gel or cream textures are recommended. 

Clay masks, which are especially popular today, should be kept on the face until they dry because after that the skin also begins to dry out. Clay masks can be covered with foil on top.

Care for combination skin

Features of care for combination skin are explained by the nuances of its structure. The increased activity of the sebaceous glands in the T-zone requires close attention. When cleansing combination skin, peelings are recommended twice a week. This will make facial cleansing more effective and will accelerate the absorption of the active ingredients of the creams. However, if there is inflammation in the T-zone, then peeling is not worth doing.

Skin nutrition

different products should be used for different areas. For example, in areas of increased activity of the sebaceous glands, matting and drying creams should be applied. But creams with a pronounced moisturizing effect are recommended for the cheek and forehead area.

Anti-aging care

With age, a number of changes occur in the body as a whole and, accordingly, in the layers of the epidermis in particular: metabolism slows down, tissue renewal, water content decreases, which ultimately leads to a loss of tone.

A change in the hormonal balance also affects the condition of the skin: moisture is retained less, and fine wrinkles form more easily. That is why an anti-aging skincare program should be comprehensive, ideally, anti-age therapy concerns the whole body.

These measures are aimed at improving tone, replenishing water deficit, protecting against free radicals – molecules that can destroy proteins and activate the aging process of cells. However, the anti-aging care procedure contains so many nuances that it is a topic for a separate large article.

Solution for Problem of skin

And of course, one cannot but touch upon the topic of care for problem skin. After all, each of us encounters irritations, rashes, increased pigmentation at least from time to time. What to do in this case?

Erythrosine and rosacea 

Erythrosine and rosacea (redness of the skin – temporary or permanent – and the presence of dilated blood vessels on the skin). With these problems, you need to pay attention to very gentle cleansing, use products without abrasive (solid) particles and alcohol, caring cosmetics can be applied with special devices, for example, cosmetic mittens.

You also need to use protective equipment, avoid aggressive effects on the skin, exclude baths, saunas, and hot baths. You can conduct courses of phototherapy (light therapy), mesotherapy (subcutaneous administration of drugs), with severe erythrose, use drugs of azelaic acid, metronidazole, ice massage.


Seborrhea is a violation of the sebaceous glands. It is manifested by increased sebum production, peeling of the skin, thickening of the upper layer of the epidermis. To cleanse the skin with seborrhea, you can use milk-based on herbal ingredients, it is not recommended to use alcohol-containing products (only locally). To improve the condition of the skin, you can do sulfur or mineral baths.

Acne and blackheads

Acne and blackheads. Let us dwell on the options for care with a mild degree of the disease (with pronounced problems, complex treatment may be needed, including the use of antibiotics). For acne, special attention should be paid to cleansing the skin: each procedure should last two to three minutes, and more time should be devoted to problem areas.

For toning the skin, you should choose products that do not contain alcohol, you can make lotions and tonics based on chamomile, sage, products with a low content of fruit acids. Clay peels and masks can be done once a week to tighten pores. Experts recommend doing mechanical cleaning every couple of weeks, including using ultrasound.


Hyperpigmentation – a violation of skin pigmentation is caused by various reasons, including age-related changes. There are several options for dealing with this problem.

From the use of bleaching agents to professional procedures, for example, laser peeling. To whiten the skin of the face, you can make peels with phytic and mandelic acids. Patients with age-related hyperpigmentation is shown hardware peeling or laser treatment.

Complex therapy should be used to solve skin problems

 In some cases, as we have already mentioned, antibiotics are prescribed, antifungal drugs may be required. As you know, many skin problems are associated with pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. 

That is why, in order to improve the condition of the skin, sorbents are often prescribed that help rid the body of toxins: White Coal, Smecta, Enterosgel, Lactofiltrum, and others.

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